How to replace wiring in Khrushchev - step-by-step instruction
Three reasons to replace wiring
People remember the state of electrical equipment only when problems arise in its operation. Most of these houses were built from the 50s to the 80s, that is, more than 30 years have passed. So, why is it necessary and is it worth changing the wiring in Khrushchev?
- Old cracked insulation. The service life of insulation of cables with PVC insulation is 15-25 years. But in Soviet times, cables were used for electrical wiring in rubber insulation, and even with aluminum conductors. The service life of old wiring in rubber insulation, depending on the particular case, is two or more times shorter than that of PVC insulation.
- Aluminum and its conductivity and softness. Aluminum is a soft and “flowing” metal; it has been forbidden to use it for home electrical wiring for more than the last 15 years. Contact joints of aluminum wires must be tightened once a year (depending on operating conditions).
- The power of the equipment is then and now. During the design of electrical wiring for Khrushchev, potential residents could have such electrical equipment at home - a radio, a TV, an iron, a refrigerator and a light bulb. Therefore, the TPA cross section was selected accordingly. Now the load has increased, use already copper cables section from 2.5 sq. mm for outlet groups, which allows you to power more than 3 kW on one line.
These reasons are enough to replace the wiring with a modern copper wiring made by VVGNG-LS cable or the like.
Where to look for wiring
Wiring in panel houses is laid in special channels inside the panels. They are provided by the design of the plates. In the figure below you see some examples of typical channel locations.
You may notice that the channels are located at an angle, and not always vertically or horizontally, it is customary to count. In addition to these channels, it is possible to lay wires in beams under the ceiling. These beams resemble curbs that protrude above the surface of a wall in a corner with a ceiling plate.
Wiring requires connections, so you need to find the location of the junction boxes. They can be open - protrude slightly above the wall, then their contents are hidden behind a plastic cover, and can also be plastered.
Interesting! In a one-room apartment there can be only 1 distribution box, which is available without removing wallpaper.
In this case, to find the distribution box, you will have to not only take the wallpaper, but it is also possible to tap the entire wall along the ceiling corner until you hear the characteristic sound of emptiness. After which this place simply breaks. Do the same on the ceiling. About, how to find a junction box, we detailed in a separate article.
After you find all the boxes and sockets, you can evaluate how the wires are laid. The figure below shows the appearance of the channel for wiring in the lower part of the ceiling distribution box.
By the way, Khrushchev can be divided into two types. The first is houses with load-bearing external walls, that is, those in which there are windows, and the second - with load-bearing internal walls. In any case, concrete slabs are a power structure, and those that do not play a supporting role are stiffeners, more on this below.
Replacing wiring in Khrushchev requires at least an approximate knowledge of where it can be (where the cable passes), as well as knowledge of typical schemes. The electrical circuit of the apartment depends on the number of rooms. Generally, the following situation emerges: in each living room there is 1 lamp and 2-4 sockets (depending on the area), while in small rooms, about 10 square meters. m. there may be even 1 outlet.
The following is a selection of typical Khrushchev wiring solutions.
For 1 room apartment:
For 2 rooms:
The video below clearly shows how to find the wiring in Khrushchev:
How to lay new lines
If you just need to replace the wiring in Khrushchev - it is simply laid along the same channels in the plates. For this, a new cable is screwed to the veins of the old cable and pulled. If the cable does not stretch - perhaps somewhere there is a walled distribution box or socket and the cable is held on asbestos or plaster - you need to find where it is. When you break it, the line will be pulled with ease.
The video below clearly shows how to do this:
But if you want to increase the number of outlets or transfer them, difficulties arise. It is not always possible to ditch bearing plates.
Important! Do not make horizontal strobes. According to some regulatory documents, this is prohibited, for example, Resolution of the Government of Moscow of February 8, 2005 N 73-PP "On the procedure for the reconstruction of premises in residential buildings in the city of Moscow" and its editorial offices. There is also information about the prohibition of horizontal gates in slabs longer than 3 meters. This is due to the fact that, due to the axial load, the plate may “fold” along the gate. Therefore, it is necessary to do without gating.
Consider 3 options for laying new wiring lines in Khrushchev. New lines are laid:
- Across the floor. Cables are laid in corrugation under the screed in the floor. The disadvantage is difficulty in the event of a cable failure - you have to hammer the cable tie. About, how to conduct electrical wiring in the floor, we told in a separate article.
- In the baseboards. There are a number of skirting boards with cable channels on sale, in which case you will only need to make a small vertical shtroba to a new outlet. You can learn more from the article: how to post in the skirting board.
- Under a suspended or suspended ceiling, or behind other elements of drywall constructions. You will also have to make vertical strobes, but this is actually akin to external wiring laid in a corrugated pipe along the ceiling or its corner with the wall.
Interior partitions made of bricks, aerated concrete, "shingles" and other materials can be ditched and lay lines as you like.
5 stages of wiring replacement in Khrushchev
In principle, updating and modernization of wiring in Khrushchev does not have any special differences from other housing. We have identified the main five stages that will help you determine where to start:
- Scheme. First thing you need draw up a wiring diagram. It is more convenient to do this on the plan of the apartment.On it, put the estimated location of all electrical equipment and calculate the number of outlets and fixtures, with an approximate value of their power.
- Cross section lived. You can calculate the cross-section of the conductors of wires and cables manually or using our online calculator. In this case, calculate the wire from the meter to the junction box taking into account the maximum load that will be supplied from this box, taking into account all subsequent connected boxes and rooms. The latter is especially true for owners of large apartments (3 or 4 bedroom) where there are several walk-through rooms, often they are connected by cable one after another through distribution boxes.
- Markup. stage comes wall markingswhere switches, sockets, sconces and more will be located. This will help in calculating the length of the cables and calculate the number of wiring products, after which you can make an estimate for wiring and a shopping list.
- Search for channels and laying new lines. Taking into account the above, it is necessary to replace the old wiring, ditch the new lines or prepare for installation on the floor, behind the gypsum structures or in skirting boards.
- Wiring and wiring. After all the wires take their places, check the circuit for short circuits from the shield to each distribution box, socket, lamp. The final chord is the assembly of the connection diagram of the input-distribution electrical panel of the entire apartment.
It is also worth separately considering such a question as grounding in Khrushchev. In recent years, grounding issues are especially relevant, because due to the abundance of electrical appliances, the risk of electric shock increases. In Khrushchev, there has always been a two-wire power network, or the so-called TN-C system. Since it is forbidden to intervene in the power supply scheme of the house yourself, the only thing left for you is to wait until the supplying company (or the managing organization) will re-equip the power networks in your house or entrance. An excellent solution would be the collective appeal of the residents of the house.
While there is no grounding in Khrushchev, we recommend connect the RCD in the shield, it will protect against electric shock when current leakage occurs.
Important! Do not ground anything on radiators, water pipes, or fittings. This is ineffective, and in the first two cases it can be life threatening for you and other residents.